Accurate Blood Pressure Measurement

How to measure Blood Pressure accurately by Automated Electronic Devices

Modern automated BP recording devices are now widely available through Online shopping sites. The following points need to be kept in mind while using these devices for BP recording.

Position of person:

Sitting upright, back supported, feet flat on ground, arm supported on a table horizontally at approximately the middle of the chest.

Time:

For persons on BP medications, the best time for recording is when the next dose of medicine is due.

Don’t measure BP within ½ an hour of smoking, coffee, tea or meals.

Don’t measure BP if the bladder is full, you are anxious, or having a headache or disturbing pain anywhere in the body. The results are likely to be higher.

Cuff size:

Bladder length should be ideally >80% of the circumference of the arm.

Cuff width should be >1/2 of the length of the arm (elbow to shoulder).

Small sized cuff tends to overestimate BP. Large size does not matter too much.

Other pointers:

The person should be sitting quietly for 5 mins before measurement.

Measure 3 or 4 times in case of high readings at an interval of 3-5 mins till last 2 readings are similar. The lowest readings are usually the most accurate!

Nutritional Content of Indian Foods

Foods provide calories (energy), bodybuilding material (proteins), oils and fats (provide energy in a concentrated form), carbohydrates (energy providers in less concentration compared to fats), salts and minerals including those in very small quantities (micronutrients) and vitamins both essential and not so essential.

Energy content is high in lipids: fats and oils. Fats are solid oils and each gram of these provide about 9 kilocalories. Fats also contain vitamins A, D, E and K (also called fat-soluble vitamins). Some commercially available oils and fats may be enriched with these vitamins.

Proteins provide building blocks of the body and also form various enzymes. Proteins which are easily digestible, have a composition similar to human requirements and contain essential amino acids are proteins of high biological value. These are mostly proteins of animal origin e.g. milk, eggs, poultry, meats etc.

Carbohydrates are sugars, starches, and these may be in simple and complex forms. The ones which raise blood sugar rapidly are called foods with high glycemic index.

The nutritional content of common Indian foods rich in various nutrients are as follows :

Energy in kilocalories provided by 100 g of food material:-

Meetha Tel, Ghee, Vegetable ghee:- 900 cal

Makhan (Butter) 730 cal

Akhrot (Walnut) 690 cal

Coconut dry 660 cal

Moongphali (Peanut) 568 cal

Cheeni (Sugar) 400 cal

Gurh (Jaggery) 383 cal

Chana (Chickpeas)370 cal

Bajra (Millet) 360 cal

Protein content of foods per 100 gm of food:-

Dry Bombay Duck 62 gm

Soybean 43 gm

Milk powder 38 gm

Moongphali (Groundnut) 25 gm

Mung Dal (Petite yellow lentil), Masur (Orange lentils), Urad (Black gram), Rajma (Kidney Beans), Chana (Chickpeas) 20 -25 gm

Calcium content of foods (in mg per 100 gms of food):-

Dried milk powder 1370 mg

Khoya (Curd) 650 mg

Dahi (Yoghurt) 150 mg

Cow milk 120 mg

Egg 60 mg

Potassium content in mg/100 gm of foods

Moong Dal (Petite yellow lentil) 1150 mg

Arhar (Pigeon Peas) 1100 mg

Chana dal (Split Chickpea) 720 mg

Mausambi (Limetta) 500 mg

Shaker Kandi (Sweet Potato) 400 mg

Kela (Banana) 350 mg

Kharbuja (Muskmelon) 340 mg

Bajra (Millet) 310 mg

Iron content of various foods in mg/100 gm

Kala Til (Black Sesame) 57 mg

Poha (Flattened Rice) 20 mg

Chana roasted (Roasted Chickpea)  10 mg

Bajra (Millet) 8 mg

Tarbooj (Watermelon) 8 mg

Khajur (Dates) 7.3 mg

Fibre content  in gms/100 gms of food

Kala til (Black Sesame)  11 gm

Methi (Fenugreek) 7.2 gm

Anar (Pomegranate) 5 gm

Narial  fresh (Green Coconut) 3.6 gm